# Guides to Effective Instruction

## These guides provide teachers with practical applications to help students achieve the curriculum expectations in math.

# Grades K-3

## General Principles of Instruction

- Student talk is important across all grade levels
- Representations of concepts promote understanding and communication
- Problem solving should be the basis for most mathematical learning
- Students need frequent experiences using a variety of resources and learning strategies (e.g., number lines, hundreds charts or carpets, base ten blocks, interlocking cubes, ten frames, calculators, math games, math songs, physical movement, math stories)
- As students confront increasingly more complex concepts, they need to be encouraged to use their reasoning skills

*Number Sense and Numeration, Pages 7-8.*

# Grades 4-6

# Teaching and Learning Mathematics

### The Report of The Expert Panel on Mathematics in Grades 4-6 in Ontario, 2004

The Expert Panel on Mathematics in Grades 4 to 6 in Ontario was established by the Ministry of Education to examine, synthesize, and outline the research to date on teaching mathematics to students in the junior grades (Grades 4â€“6). Panel members included teachers, consultants, principals, researchers, and professors. There is now a growing body of research on mathematics instruction and learning in the elementary classroom, and this research has much to offer instructional practice in Ontario. The Expert Panel members read widely and discussed the research in detail, drawing out what they considered to be the essential ideas. They thought about these ideas in light of their shared knowledge of mathematics education in Ontario. This report of the Expert Panel on Mathematics in Grades 4 to 6 in Ontario is an examination of these essential ideas; it is a strong vision of effective mathematics instruction and support for students at the junior level. The report is for the benefit of all educators, all communities, and all children in Ontario.